Select each item for detailed descriptions.
Search All Fields
- * Truncation operator. An asterisk appended to a word will find that word plus any additional letters; for example: sediment* will return references on sediments, sedimentation, sedimentary, etc.
- + AND Operator. A leading plus sign (+) indicates that this word must be present in each row that is returned. There is no space between the operator and the search term; for example, +hydrilla
- - NOT Operator. A leading minus sign (-) indicates that this word must not be present in any of the rows that are returned; for example, haller* -hydrilla will return references containing haller, but not those containing hydrilla.
- OR operator. When neither + nor - is specified, the default is OR; for example, haller* hydrilla* returns references that contain either word.
- " " A phrase that is enclosed within quotation marks matches only rows that contain the exact phrase; for example, "chemical control"
- ( ) Parentheses group words into subexpressions. Parenthesized groups can be nested. ex: +acid +(rain* precip* depositi*) Finds acid AND (rain* or precip or deposit*)
- To restrict your search results by date, choose one of the modifiers from the Date modifier field (<,>, =), and enter a date, combined with your search term in Search All Fields.
- To search by year alone, enter the year into the Date field.
- +hydrilla haller finds records that contain the word "hydrilla", but rank records higher if they also contain "haller".
- +najas -marina finds records that contain "najas" but not "marina"
Search Single Fields
To search a specific field (for example, Title, Author, Date, etc.), type a single word into a single field. Individual field searches do not support the above operators or multiple search terms.
Advanced Search Examples
Following are examples of advanced search strings for searching the APIRS database. These have been compiled based on many years of experience using the database. For additional assistance, please contact Karen Brown.
- For acid rain, search the following to be sure you're not missing the publications that refer to acid rain as acid precipitation or acid deposition:
+acid +(rain* precip* depositi*)
- For carbon-14, search
("c-14" "c14" "14-c" "14c" "carbon-14*" radio* radio-label*) (+carbon* +isotop*)
- For revegetation/restoration, search
(restor* reveg* transplant* reestabl* mitigat* reclaim* reclama* aquascap* recover*)
- For tissue culture, search
microprop* "tissue culture" kane* cloning*
- For utilization, specify the type of use you are interested in and a plant name, if appropriate. Search
+utilization +(drug* medicin* pharmac* ethnobot*) or search +utilization +(biofertiliz* compost* mulch* manur* fertilizer amend* enrich* organic*) or +utilization +(food feed diet forage)+utilization +(bird duck ducks waterfowl) or +utilization +animal*
- For herbicides in the environment, search the herbicide name (Ex: blammo) and
+blammo +(persist* toxic* mobil* risk* degrad* bioaccum* residu* dissipa* bioconcen* fate biodegrad*)
If you get too many citations, repeat the initial search and add +effects:
+blammo +effects +(persist* toxic* mobil* risk* degrad* bioaccum* residu* dissipa* bioconcen* fate biodegrad*)
- For control of plants, search
"chemical control" or "mechanical control" or "biological control" or "government control"
- For how to grow plants, search
grow* propaga* cultiva* horticu* Add hobby aquari* for growing plants in tanks.
- For plants used in pollution control systems, search
- For created or constructed wetlands, search
+wetland*+(creat* construc* artific* manmad* man-mad*)
- For the success or failure of these wetlands, combine the above search with
(assess* success monitor* evaluat* failur* result* surviv*) Do not use * after success unless you want a lot of articles on plant succession.
- For erosion, search
(erosion* erod* scouring*)
- For erosion control, search
"erosion control" "erosion control" "bank stabili*"
- For citations on invasions by exotic species, search
(noxious* threat infest* obstruct* inva* spread* impact* exotic* non-indig* non-nativ* introduc*) You can also use economic* but this greatly increases the yield. To reduce either search, repeat the search with +effects
- Regarding copper as an herbicide search
+copper +("chemical control" herbicid*),
as a heavy metal or pollution, search
+copper* +(metal* pollut* sediment* bioaccumu*), or you can search
- For seagrasses, use the genus names:
(zostera halodule enhalus posidonia syringodium amphibolis heterozostera thalassia halophila ruppia cymodocea phyllospadix) If you search seagrass* without a genus name, you will retrieve fewer references.
- We have a small number of cites on mangroves. Use the genus names:
avicennia rhizophora laguncularia
- For cites on aquatic soils or sediment, search
+aquatic +(hydrosoil* substrat* sediment*)
- For cites on models or systems, search
(system* stud* model* profil* predict* assess*) These keywords can be combined with categories such as lakes or wetlands or rivers to make the search more specific:
+rivers +(system* stud* model* profil* predict* assess*)
- For cites on the effects of drought or flood or water level fluctuations, search
moist* saturat* flood* drought* level* inundat* waterlog* hydrolog* hydroperiod* fluctuat*
- For cites on the benefits of aquatic plants, search
benefi* valu* habitat* host* economic* To limit the search, add review and/or plant names:
+review* +(benefi* valu* habitat* host* economic*)
- For cites on flowing water research, search
flow flowing hydraulic* resist* velocit* manning* coeffici* friction*
Do not search flow* or you will get a lot of cites on flowering.
- For cites on growth or productivity of plants, search
growth producti* competit* biomass* succession
- For cites on plants that kill or repel, search
(phytochemical* phenolic* allelo* defens* toxic) Note: If you use * with toxic, you will retrieve articles on herbicide toxicology and toxicity.
- For cites on plant distribution, do not simply search distribution. We have used this word to indicate where the research effort described in the citation took place.
Search the plant name and
(phytogeog* ("new record") occurr* loca* flora range survey distrib* geograph* floristic* phytosociol*)
- For cites on evapotranspiration, search
evapo* This will pick up evaporation and evapotranspiration. You may add transpir* for cites on transpiration.
For host plants of animals, search
+animal* +host +plant*
For habitats of animals where plant grows, search
+animal* +habitat* or
- For biological control, search
- For chemical control (avoid trade names such as Rodeo), search
- For cultural control, search
- For distribution, search
- For ecology, The following are used with the category ecosystem to identify the kind of ecosystem(s) in which the research occurred.
- For mechanical control, search
+biological +control +insect +neochetina or
+biological +control +fish +ctenoph* or
+biological +control +pathogen
+chemical +control +fluridoneor
"chemical control" +fluridone
+chemical +control +efficacy +flurido*
+cultur* +control +fire* or
fire* burn* shad* drawdown*
+phytogeography +occurrence +sphagnum or
+survey +ludwigia +france
+ecology +salt +marsh*
+ecology +(lake* pond*) (meaning ecology AND lakes OR ecology AND ponds)
mechanical +(harvest* mow* dredg*)
From the search results screen, check records you wish to tag. Each page of results must be tagged separately and submitted to your profile by using the Tag Records button. To view, print or email the collected tagged records, use the Tagged Records button in the toolbar at the top of the page. To email tagged records, check those you wish to receive or use the Check All button, and click on Email Tags. Tagged records selected will be sent to the email address given in your login information.
To return to your results page, use the BACK TO RESULTS link at the top of the page.
(should be used in conjunction with user-specified keywords and/or plant scientific names)
APIRS Categories - annotated
if with host plants, it means the organism eats and/or lives upon the plant, ie, epiphytes (close association).
if with habitat, it means the organism lives where the plant is growing.
used as a management tool, not just an ecological (host plant/organism) relationship. Specify type: animals, fish, insect, pathogens, or snails. Also, if the scientific name of the animal, fish, etc. is known, specify the genus and species.
used as a management tool; not to be confused with herbicides in the environment due to run-off or testing for toxicity. You may be specific by naming chemicals (avoid trade names such as Rodeo): fluridone, glyphosate, 2,4-d*, etc. Chemical control and efficacy finds articles on the effects of herbicides on target plants and level of control.
used as a management tool; water level manipulations or prescribed burning, etc. Specify kind of control, ie, hand-weeding, fire, shading, drawdown, etc.
specifies the country or state where the research effort took place. Does not necessarily indicate plant distribution. For plant distribution, use keywords from APIRS Keywords or search survey and plant and/or country, and/or phytogeography and occurrence.
used in a very broad sense and, besides natural systems, includes micro- and mesocosm research aimed at reproducing effects of, or on, the natural environment. The category ecology is used to describe research NOT exclusively physiology, reproduction, taxonomy, morphology, etc. Most often, both ecology and ecosystem are used in conjunction.
used with lakes, rivers, or reservoirs, etc., to indicate increased nutrient accumulation, not necessarily pollution, due to either natural aging or human activities.
is descriptive of literature which deals with the lawmaking and regulatory dimensions, such as agencies involved in regulation, permitting, legislation and monitoring. Other keywords might be jurisdiction, delineation, restoration, preservation, value, policy, issues, management. Reports about governmental agency programs are found under this category.
as a category is fairly specific, indicating an organism is directly associated or dependent upon the plant as a food source or a substrate, or in some symbiotic relationship. If the organism's diet is an invasive or aquatic plant, then the category animal or invertebrate can be used in conjunction with the keywords herbivory, food preference, diet, grazing, and the name of the organism, i.e., waterfowl or manatee or bird or fish or snail, etc.
as a category is used with the categories of ecology and ecosystem (and sometimes toxicology) when the purpose is to locate research dealing with the effects of the herbicides on the environment and not aquatic or invasive plant control only. If information is wanted dealing with control and the side effects on the other plants and/or animals, then both chemical control and herbicides can be used as search categories. Keywords which might be employed to narrow the research include (phyto)toxicity, food web, and the organism affected, i.e., fish, and effects, non-target species/plants.
identifies articles which address a combination of control strategies, i.e., biological control and chemical control combined, for greater efficacy in plant management.
is specifically the use of a machine or mechanical equipment for aquatic or invasive plant control. Sub-categories are harvesting, mowing, dredging, bottom barriers, cutting, steam.
research can be very limited, as in histology (tissues) and cytology (cells), to the plant anatomy only. However, the category of morphology also can be used to find works that deal with ecology and ecosystem research such as depth accomodation or elongation response or leaf length, when these keywords are used. Or it can be used in relation to taxonomy. Genetics research can be located by using morphology and cytology as categories, plus the keywords genetics, chromosomes, karyology, etc.
can be very specific when used with plant genus and species or very general when used with ecosystem and lake or wetland, etc. Use specific nutrients as keywords, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, if necessary. Invasive plants or exotic pest plants are keywords used frequently with plant succession. Search for invasion and natural areas management and exotic pest plants for articles on parks or natural areas experiencing competition by non-native plants.
is used to indicate a human activity (keyword: mining, wastewater, sewage, etc.). Use utilization and pollution control to indicate a method of controlling pollution with plants. This brings up sites about using plants for sewage treatment, as well as the keywords wastewater constructed, created or artificial with wetland.
used alone or with the keyword biomass to indicate plant growth.
used for overall, ecosystem-wide production (frequently includes secondary production).
as a search category will locate articles that deal with using satellite imagery or aerial photographs or gis (geographical information system) or gps (global positioning system) to survey plant communities or natural areas. If a new technique or equipment is involved, then method is used as a keyword.
may be further refined by using flowering, germination or ontogeny. It can be refined to a "macro" ecosystem level or to a "micro" histology level. At the macro level, reproduction can be associated with plant succession and the following keywords: seed, survival, competition, seed bank, disturbance, tolerance, etc. Reproduction used in conjunction with ontogeny can be used to identify research at the micro level, especially when keywords such as sporogenesis, embryogenesis, etc. are added. Yet another use of reproduction is to locate articles on micropropagation or tissue culture. If the research is describing a new procedure, then the word method can be added in the list of search keywords.
is a search category that specifically identifies an article as NOT containing original research findings. Review means the article is based upon findings by others and, as such, can be very general and broad in nature or can be a scholarly and highly refined work, such as a monograph.
as a search category will locate, for example, phytosociology research which details species composition or communities and associations, often with long, detailed species lists. (If more than 40 species are listed, then it is noted in keywords "more than 40 species" and the plant names are NOT listed in the plant field.)
is used to locate articles which deal with the naming and classification of plants. Frequently, taxonomy is used with morphology as a category and the keywords new record (if a new occurrence or new classification), identification, or illustration (if especially good drawings are in the article). Keywords manual or guide can be used to find taxonomic reference books.
is used to identify research on the effects of toxic substances on the ecosystem or organisms. For example, herbicide and toxicology would be used to locate articles about the toxic effects of herbicides on fish or other animals. Herbicide and toxicity finds articles on the effects of herbicides on plants in experimental situations or on non-target plants. On the other hand, chemical control and efficacy finds articles on the phytotoxic effects of an herbicide.
identify articles which cover the effects of plants on other organisms such as animals, plants or humans. The effects may be lethal or irritant or allelopathic. When used in conjunction with keywords such as phytochemistry and the kind of toxicity, a more refined search is possible.
as a search category will locate research conducted on the use of a particular plant for human needs, such as eichhornia for biogas or the use of an ecosystem such as wetlands for pollution control or wastewater treatment. If the wetland has been created specifically for pollution control, then artificial or created or constructed or man-made can be used as keywords. These articles most often deal with the efficiencies of bod reduction, etc.
Many articles address the use of azolla as a fertilizer, in which case the keywords crop, nitrogen fixation, symbiosis, amendment, green manure, biofertilizer, compost, enrich, organic can be used.
Other keywords are commercial uses, medicine, drug.
Utilization of harvested plants for food for animals, can be found using keywords forage or feed or diet or silage. Edible plants are those consumed by humans.
as a category will locate articles which include water quality sampling or parameters as a basic part of the research, descriptive only and not necessarily for pollution. If direct influence of water chemistry is the purpose of the research, then effects plus ph, turbidity, carbon dioxide, oxygen, etc. can be searched as keywords.
Any word may be used as a keyword, but this list represents keywords that we regularly and consistently use in the APIRS database.