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- n. (Gr. taxis, arrangement; nomos, law) a science that includes identification, nomenclature, and classification of objects, and is usually restricted to objects of biological origin; orderly classification of plants according to their presumed natural relationships forming a basic biological discipline involving during its Linnean period the firm establishment of binomial nomenclature and acceptance of the static concept of fixity of the species, during its Darwinian period the dynamic concept of speciation by natural selection, and during its modern Mendelian epoch an expansion to include study of the mechanisms underlying speciation and related processes.