Imazamox Considerations

No single herbicide is appropriate for controlling all invasive aquatic plants (or nuisance growths of native aquatic plants), in all situations. A herbicide may perform differently depending on the waterbody, its use, the time of year—or even the time of day. Therefore, aquatic plant managers must have a thorough understanding of how each herbicide acts in Florida aquatic systems. The following parameters are evaluated when considering this herbicide to manage aquatic plants in a specific waterbody. Each parameter is linked to an explanation and examples are provided to demonstrate their relevance to developing comprehensive aquatic plant management strategies.

Table A: Herbicide Use Patterns for Imazamox

Target Plant Scientific Name Use Pattern Herbicides
Hydrilla Hydrilla Verticillata Occasional use as a growth regulator Imazamox
Duckweed Spirodela spp. Occasional Imazamox
Salvinia Salvinia spp. Occasional Imazamox
Frog’s bit Limnobium spongia Occasional Imazamox
Wild taro Colocasia esculenta Frequent Imazamox
Alligator weed Alternanthera philoxeroides Occasional Imazamox
Chinese tallow Sapium sebiferum (Syn. Triadica sebifera) Frequent Imazamox
Water pennywort Hydrocotyle spp. Frequent Imazamox
Cattail Typha spp. Frequent Imazamox
Primrose willow Ludwigia spp. incl. Ludwigia grandiflora Occasional Imazamox
Phragmites Phragmites australis Occasional Imazamox

Table B: Water Uses and Functions

Water Use Parameters Management Considerations
Downstream Uses and Needs See irrigation and potable water below
Fish and Wildlife Mgmt.  
Vegetation planting Avoid applications within newly installed aquatic revegetation sites
Forage and prey No issues related to this tool
Fisheries No issues related to this tool
Practically non-toxic to fathead minnow – LC50-96hr >122 ppm
Non-game wildlife No issues related to this tool
Endangered species No issues related to this tool
Waterfowl No issues related to this tool
Practically non-toxic in mallard duck dietary tests – LC50 >5,500 ppm
Flood Control Need to minimize flow for at least 48 hours to allow good contact
Navigation and Access No issues related to this tool
Irrigation Wait 24 hours before irrigating if applied within 100 feet of intake at concentrations >75 ppb
Approved for food crop irrigation after concentration drops below 75 ppb
No turf irrigation restrictions
Livestock Consumption No issues related to this tool
Potable Water No restrictions for applications made ¼ mile or more from active potable water intake
Shut down water intake if application exceeds 50 ppb within ¼ mile of potable water intake
Recreation  
Boating No issues related to this tool
Fishing Fishing – no fishing restrictions
Hunting No issues related to this tool
Swimming No swimming restrictions

Table C: Herbicide, Waterbody, Plant, and Climate Parameters

Herbicide Parameters Management Considerations
Herbicide Rate Maximum label concentration for controlling hydrilla is 500 ppb per growing season
Generally applied at 24-32 oz / ac for wild taro and cattail control
Generally applied at 50-150 ppb hydrilla growth regulation
Breakdown / Inactivation Average half life in water of 14 days in Florida
Microbial N/A
Photolysis Broken down by sunlight – primary pathway
Dissipation Soluble – weakly adsorbed to clay and organic particles
May dissipate widely in submersed plant applications depending on water movement
Herbicidal activity only in areas where concentration is sufficient to control the target plant
Formulation  
Liquid Available as a liquid formulation
Granular Available as a granular formulation
Use granular formulation for spot and large-scale submersed plant applications – acts like contact-type herbicide
Mode of Action  
Systemic Quickly absorbed by leaves, shoots, and roots – translocated to meristematic tissue
Shuts down plant growth almost immediately – control in 2-6 weeks
Inhibits the plant enzyme acetolactate synthase (ALS) – inhibits cell division and causes plant death
Plant Growth Regulator Primarily used as herbicide for aquatic plant control at rates of 150-250 ppb
Functions as growth inhibitor or growth regulator at lower rates of 50-150 ppb
May provide 3-6 months growth suppression at lower rates
Stewardship  
Herbicide resistance / tolerance Resistance to ALS compounds confirmed in terrestrial species – none in aquatics
Rotate other compounds for successive large-scale hydrilla control applications, or
Use in combination with other active ingredients including potassium endothall or penoxsulam for submersed plant control
Waterbody Parameters Management Considerations
Hydrology  
Water depth
Amounts used are depth dependent – see label for chart
Water volume Accurate bathymetry is required to calculate prescribed dose for submersed plant control
Apply if possible when water level (volume) is lower
Water movement Need at least 2-3 days of exposure for submersed plant control – similar to potassium endothall
Water chemistry  
Dissolved oxygen (DO) Relatively fast  acting when used alone and in combination with potassium endothall for submersed plant control
DO sags not likely an issue, especially in fall-spring applications
pH, alkalinity, hardness No issues related to this tool
Nutrient content
Slow acting herbicide so nutrient release from decomposing plants in large-scale control is slow
Water transparency Color/tannic content – no issues related to this tool
Turbidity – no issues related to this tool
Sediment characteristics  
Composition
Sand/Clay – no issues related to this tool
Organic – do not apply granular formulation to flocculent organic sediments
Potential for resuspension No issues related to this tool
Plant Physiology Parameters Management Considerations
Plant origin/ growth potential  
Native Used for pennywort, cattail and frog’s bit control
Non-native Used for primrose willow and phragmites control
Invasive Frequent use for wild taro and Chinese tallow control
Controls water hyacinth through root uptake in submersed plant applications, and by direct foliar application
Increasingly applied to control large flower primrose willow and crested floating heart
Plant growth stage (target/non-target) Lower rates may have greater impact on young actively growing plants
Plant susceptibility (target/non-target)
Must be applied to actively growing target plants
Occasional use in combination with potassium endothall to control small to large-scale hydrilla in quiescent waters
Imazamox rate of 75-150 ppb / potassium endothall rate of 1-2 ppm
Control is relatively fast – 2-6 weeks
Controls some beneficial submersed plants like Illinois pondweed (Potamogetom illinoensis) during season of treatment
Does not control southern naiad (Najas guadalupensis)
Wild taro, alligator weed, and Chinese tallow control
Up to 1 gpa for foliar broadcast and up to 5% solution plus surfactant for spot control
Cattail control
32 fl oz/a for selective, but slow (~3 months) control when mixed with bulrush
64 fl oz/a for effective control of monocultures, but less selective
32 fl oz/a + 32 fl oz/a glyphosate for excellent monoculture control, but non-selective
32 fl oz/a + 4 oz/a flumioxazin or 6 fl oz/a carfentrazone for cattail, hyacinth, lettuce mix – selective in bulrush, pickerel weed, duck potato
Large flower primrose willow control
32 fl oz/a + 4 fl oz/a carfentrazone – foliar applicaton
400 ppb for submersed and rosette growth stage or emergent plants less than 15" tall
Good efficacy for foliar application to young water hyacinth@ 32 fl oz/a – 2-4 wk for control
Phragmites control @ 2% with 1% MSO backpack, and 1 gpa with 1% MSO broadcast
Crested floating heart
128 fl oz/a + 4 oz/a flumioxazin or 6 fl oz/a carfentrazone for excellent control
128 fl oz/a + 48 fl oz/a glyphosate
Potential for regrowth (target/non-target) Effective for annual control of hydrilla when applied in combination with potassium endothall
Regrowth mostly from sprouting turions / tubers
Hydrilla control varies with season and plant growth stage – up to 1 year control
Older plants with more carbohydrate reserves will require higher dose of imazamox
May provide more than 1 year control of floating plants during in-water applications
Climate Parameters Management Considerations
Weather Daily
Apply when wind / wave action is calm
Seasonal
Optimum hydrilla control efficacy when applied during active plant growth periods
Extended hydrilla treatment window when applied with potassium endothall for fall or winter-spring applications
Light intensity Low intensity reduces submersed plant (hydrilla) ability to recover
Water temperature Apply with water temperature generally above 50º F to ensure active growth of target plants
Plants must be actively growing for plant to take up herbicide
Apply throughout water column for hydrilla control if strong thermocline exists
Granular formulation below and trailing hoses above thermocline
Long and short trailing hoses

Table D: Other Parameters

Parameter Management Considerations
Cost Generics are not available
Anticipated Control Amount  
Spatial Acres
Systemic-type herbicide generally disperses outside treatment area depending on water movement
Minimize dispersal using granular formulations
Acres of submersed plant control generally equals acres of plants to which imazamox or imazamox + potassium endothall is applied
Percent of water column
when used as a growth regulator for hydrilla, lowers surface canopy to mid water column depths
Growth regulation lasts several months per application
Duration Similar to contact-type herbicide for hydrilla control – 3-8 months
Time to Achieve Control Relatively fast acting (2-6 weeks) for hydrilla control; faster when applied in combination with potassium endothall
Contractor/Equipment Apply by hand gun and airboat for small acreages or by helicopter for larger acreages of floating and emergent plants
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