Glossary

a
acceptable toxicity levelsearch for term
The level of pesticide present in food or water in which a lifetime of human consumption is not likely to cause adverse health effects in humans.
active ingredientsearch for term
The specific chemical in a formulation that is responsible for killing or controlling a plant.
acute effectsearch for term
An illness that becomes apparent soon after an exposure to a pesticide occurs.
acute exposuresearch for term
A single or short-term exposure to a chemical that results in severe harm or death.
adsorbingsearch for term
To take up and hold by adsorption.
adsorptionsearch for term
The attachment of a thin layer of molecules (as of gasses, solutes, or liquids) to the surfaces of solids or liquids with which they are in contact.
adventivesearch for term
Arrived in the geographical area specified from somewhere else by any means (adjective); not native (non-indigenous) to the area in which it has arrived.
adventive biological controlsearch for term
Regulation of a pest population by a natural enemy that has arrived from elsewhere without deliberate introduction.
algae bloom (algal bloom) (bloom)search for term
When chlorophyll concentrations reach a level over 40 micrograms per liter, forming mats or clumps of algae.
alkalinesearch for term
Basic, having a pH of more than 7.
anadromoussearch for term
A fish that migrates from the sea to freshwater.
anoxiasearch for term
A hypoxia of extreme severity as to result in permanent damage.
apical meristemsearch for term
The portion of a plant, located at end of a root or shoot that is responsible for increase in length.
application ratesearch for term
Pertaining to the amount of pesticide that is applied to a known area, such as a surface acre.
aquaculturesearch for term
The cultivation of animals and plant life in a water environment. Florida is one of the national leaders in aquaculture, producing large quantities of aquatic plants, fish and animals for commercial sale. Many of the aquaculture crops in Florida are not traditional food species, but specialty items such as tropical fish and ornamental aquatic plants.
aquascapingsearch for term
The practice of using aquatic and wetland plants to landscape in and around water. It is mainly for the purpose of visual enhancement, but can also attract wildlife including waterbirds. In Florida, many retention and stormwater management ponds are aquascaped to help mitigate for lost wetland habitat. Aquascaping helps filter pollutants from runoff and safeguard water quality.
aquatic macrophytesearch for term
Aquatic plants that are large enough to be visable to the naked eye.
aquifersearch for term
A formation, group of formations, or part of a formation that contains or conducts groundwater. Especially one that supplies water for wells and springs.
atmospheric nitrogensearch for term
Nitrogen in gaseous state.
augmentative biological controlsearch for term
Release of large numbers of a biological control agent to supplement small numbers already present, in expectation of a greatly increased effect.
b
bedrocksearch for term
The solid rock underlying unconsolidated surface materials (such as soil).
benthicsearch for term
Of, relating to, or occurring on the bottom underlying a body of water.
bioaccumulatesearch for term
The accumulation of a substance (as a pesticide) in a living organism.
bioavailabilitysearch for term
The degree and rate at which a substance is absorbed into a living system or is made available at the site of physiological activity.
biodiversitysearch for term
A number of species growing in balance within an ecosystem.
biological controlsearch for term
The purposeful introduction of natural enemies by scientists and environmental managers as a means to weaken and suppress invading plants.
biological productivitysearch for term
The ability of a waterbody (or habitat) to support plants, fish, and wildlife. The rate at which organic material is produced.
biomasssearch for term
Weight of all living material in a unit area at an instantaneous time.
bloomsearch for term
A rapid and excessive growth of a plankton population.
brackishsearch for term
Somewhat salty.
brand namesearch for term
Name under which the manufacturer sells the product.
breakdown pathwaysearch for term
The environmental processes that cause a herbicide to no longer be toxic to plants.
broad spectrum herbicidesearch for term
A herbicide that kills a wide range of plants.
c
calcareoussearch for term
Resembling calcite or calcium carbonate, especially in hardness. Growing on limestone or in soil with lime.
cationicsearch for term
Relating to a positively charged ion.
cautionsearch for term
The signal word used on labels of slightly toxic or relatively nontoxic pesticides.
certified applicatorsearch for term
A person who has demonstrated through an examination process the ability to safely handle and apply restricted use pesticides.
chemical namesearch for term
The official name given to a chemical compound to distinguish it from other chemical compounds.
chlorophyllsearch for term
Green, light-absorbing molecules inside the chloroplasts of algae and green plants.
chloroplastssearch for term
Chlorophyll-containing plastids found in algal and green plant cells.
cholorophyllsearch for term
The green photosynthetic pigment found chiefly within plants.
chronic exposuresearch for term
Repeated low level exposures over an extended period of time. Aside from mortality, health effects can be reported in terms of reproductive harm and cancer risk.
colorsearch for term
Refers to the presence of dissolved organic materials (humic acids from decaying leaves) and also dissolved minerals, which can give water a reddish-brown or “tea” color. In some cases, these substances can make the water appear almost black.
common namesearch for term
The recognized, nonscientific name given to pesticides.
contact herbicidesearch for term
A herbicide that causes injury to plant tissue where contact occurs.
contact timesearch for term
Duration of herbicide exposure to the plant.
contaminantssearch for term
Substances that potentially threaten water quality such as; human and animal bacteria, pesticides, fertilizers, fuel spills, and other pollutants.
convectional mixingsearch for term
mixing of water due to changes in temperature (e.g., surface water cools and sinks at night). Water is constantly moving and mixing even on days with no wind.
d
dangersearch for term
The signal word used on labels of highly hazardous pesticides due to serious health or environmental hazards.
dermal exposuresearch for term
Contact with skin.
detritalsearch for term
Loose material (such as rock fragments or organic particles) that results directly from disintegration.
diffusionsearch for term
To extend freely (extend, scatter). Dissolved substances moving from a region of higher to lower concentration.
directions for usesearch for term
The instructions found on pesticide labels indicating the proper procedures for mixing and application.
dissipationsearch for term
The slow reduction in concentration and eventual loss of a substance through degradation, dilution, or both processes.
dissolved oxygensearch for term
Oxygen gas that is dissolved in water. Fish need oxygen just as land animals do.
dosesearch for term
The quantity of chemical exposure per unit of time.
drawdownsearch for term
Also called drydown or dewatering, reduction of water body level to control exposed plants and improve substrate to support plant diversity.
e
ecological nichessearch for term
A habitat supplying the factors necessary for the existance of an organism or species. The ecological role of an organism in a community especially in regard to food consumption.
efficacysearch for term
Effectiveness.
emergentsearch for term
Rooted in shallow water and having most of the vegetative growth above the water.
emersedsearch for term
Rooted in shallow water and having most of the vegetative growth above the water. Synonymous with emergent.
epilimnionsearch for term
A surface layer of water overlaying the thermocline of a lake.
eradication search for term
To do away with completely. To thoroughly exterminate and remove.
establishment numbersearch for term
A number assigned to registered pesticides by the U.S. EPA that indicates the location of the manufacturing or formulation facilities of that product.
euphotic zonesearch for term
Zone where there is sufficient light for the growth of plants.
eutrophicsearch for term
Enriched in dissolved nutrients.
eutrophicationsearch for term
The process by which a body of water becomes enriched in dissolved nutrients (as phosphates) that stimulate the growth of aquatic plant life usually resulting in the depletion of dissolved oxygen.
evaporationsearch for term
The process by which water vaporizes and escapes from water surface, rising into the atmosphere. Evaporation rates are affected by latitude of the water body (solar energy input), air and water temperatures, air pressure, wind velocity over the water surface, and turbulence in the water. Evaporation rates are also influenced by the plant coverage on the lake’s surface. In general, evaporation decreases as emersed plant and floating plant coverage increases. Floating-leaved plants can however reduce the evaporation loss of water in a lake.
evapotranspirationsearch for term
The process by which water vapor is taken up and used by plants, and transpired (emitted as water vapor) to the atmosphere. In most situations, aquatic macrophyte evapotranspiration greatly increases water loss from a water body. Evapotranspiration rates depend on plant characteristics such as height and leaf area index as well as environmental factors such as latitude, air and water temperatures, wind speed, relative humidity, plant growth phase and nutrient availability.
exposuresearch for term
Route of entry into the body (dermal, inhalation, or ingestion).
f
fire regimesearch for term
The pattern, frequency, and intensity of wildfires and brushfires that prevails in an area.
floating islandssearch for term
Floating rafts from a few inches to several feet thick of peat or muck supporting aquatic, herbaceous and woody plants, and sometimes trees.
floating-leavedsearch for term
A plant that may or may not be anchored to the sediment, but has leaves that float on the surface of the water.
flocculentsearch for term
Having a fluffly or wooly appearance.
Floridan aquifersearch for term
The portion of the principal artesian aquifer that Extends into Florida. The principal artesian aquifer is the largest, oldest and deepest aquifer in the southeastern U.S. It is contained under pressure by a confining bed of impermeable sediments. In areas of great enough pressure, spring flows are produced.
fluvialsearch for term
Of, relating to, or living in a stream or a river. Or produced by the action of a stream or river.
formulationsearch for term
The form in which a herbicide is sold (liquid, granular or other form), or a mixture of active and inert ingredients combined during product manufacture. Synonyms: formulations
fortuitous biological controlsearch for term
Regulation of a pest population by a natural enemy that has arrived from elsewhere without deliberate introduction.
free-floatingsearch for term
A plant that is not anchored in the sediment; they get their nutirents directly from the water.
frysearch for term
Young or recently hatched fish.
g
graminoidsearch for term
Of or resembling the grasses.
gravidsearch for term
Carrying developing young or eggs.
h
half-lifesearch for term
The half-life of a herbicide describes the length of time it takes for 50% of the herbicide to break down to secondary compounds.
herbaceoussearch for term
Having little or no woody tissue.
herbicidesearch for term
A chemical substance used to destroy or inhibit the growth of plants, especially weeds.
herbicide precipitationsearch for term
Falling out of solution and sinking to the bottom.
herbivoroussearch for term
plant-eating
humic acidsearch for term
Produced when organic matter such as dead leaves and plant material decay. Humic acids can color water so that it appears reddish or reddish-brown, even black.
hydraulic conductivitysearch for term
Ability of a canal to transport water. Water-handling capacity.
hydraulic gradientsearch for term
The movement of water downward along the horizontal slope of the subsurface bedding plane.
hydrologic cyclesearch for term
The sequence of conditions through which water passes from vapor in the atmosphere through precipitation on land and water surfaces and then back to the atmosphere through evaporation and transpiration.
hydrolysissearch for term
Breaking down in water.
hydrostatic headsearch for term
A measure of water pressure. The pressure at a given point in a liquid measured in terms of the vertical height of a column of the liquid needed to produce the same pressure.
hypereutrophicsearch for term
An aquatic system with high productivity and very high nutrients.
hypolimnionsearch for term
the part of a lake below the thermocline made of water that is stagnant and of essentially uniform temperature except during the period of overturn.
hypoxiasearch for term
A deficiency of oxygen.
i
inactivationsearch for term
Herbicide broken down.
inertsearch for term
Lacking a usual or anticipated chemical or biological action.
inert ingredientssearch for term
All materials in the pesticide formulation other than the active ingredient. Some inert ingredients may be toxic or hazardous to people.
inhalationsearch for term
Inhaling or breathing in a substance.
inundative biological controlsearch for term
Release of large numbers of a biological control agent relative to the numbers of a target species, in expectation of a rapid effect. There is no implication that the released biological control agent will establish a permanent population.
k
karstsearch for term
An irregular limestone region with sinkholes, underground streams, and caverns.
l
labelingsearch for term
The pesticide label and all associated materials, including supplemental labels, special local needs registration information, and manufacturer’s information. The label is a legal document.
LD50search for term
Dose lethal to 50% of a test population (typically used for lab rats receiving the herbicide orally or in other ways).
lethal plant dosesearch for term
The amount of herbicidal actvie ingredient that is required to kill a plant.
ligninssearch for term
Substances related to cellulose that occur in the woody cell walls of plants and in the cementing material between them.
limnologistsearch for term
A Scientist that studies lakes and other freshwater bodies including their physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.
littoral zonesearch for term
The zone of water closest to the shore where light reaches all the way to the bottom.
m
magnesiumsearch for term
A common component of water and an essential nutrient for all organisms including vegetables, algae, fish and mammals. It is represented in the Periodic Table as Mg.
marlsearch for term
A loose or crumbling earthy deposit (of sand, silt, or clay) that contains a substantial amount of calcium carbonate.
maximum use rate search for term
The target amount of herbicide in the water after application.
metabolitessearch for term
Products, such as amino acids and nucleotides, that are formed as a result of the chemical reactions that happen during the cellular process, metabolism.
metalimnionsearch for term
The stratum below the epilimnion and hypolimnion water layers.
microbialsearch for term
Broken down by microbes.
migratorysearch for term
To move from one place to another.
miltsearch for term
The sperm-containing fluid of a male fish.
monoculturesearch for term
Population of low or single-species diversity.
n
narrow-spectrum herbicidesearch for term
A herbicide that targets a specific plant species.
ninety-six hour LC50search for term
Herbicide concentration lethal to 50% of a test population in 96 hours (typically used for fish swimming in water containing the herbicide). Synonyms: 96 hr LC50, 96-hour LC50
nitrogensearch for term
A colorless, tasteless, odorless element that is relatively inert (stable) and constitutes 78 percent of the atmosphere and forms a part of all living tissues.
nitrogen fixationsearch for term
The changing of free nitrogen in the air into a combined form (as ammonia) especially by bacteria in the soil and in roots.
non-classical biological controlsearch for term
Mass rearing and periodic release of resident biological control agents (native or introduced) to increase their effectiveness.
nutrientssearch for term
Chemicals that algae and aquatic plants (macrophytes) need for growth. Nitrogen and phosphorous are two of the most common nutrients found in Florida soils.
o
oligotrophicsearch for term
An aquatic sytem that contains low concentrations of nutrients. Biologically less productive, supporting small amounts of algae, few plants and fish. Water is clear.
oral exposuresearch for term
Ingestion
oxidesearch for term
Binary compound of oxygen and another element (Example – iron oxide).
oxidizesearch for term
To expose to air, oxygen.
p
PDMPsearch for term
Pesticide Discharge Management Plan – demonstrates integrated pest management strategies and documents steps taken to reduce pesticide discharges to water of the U.S.
peatsearch for term
Partially carbonized vegetative tissue formed by the partial decomposition in water of various plants.
periphytonsearch for term
Organisms (such as some algae) that live attached to underwater surfaces.
personal protective equipment (PPE)search for term
Devices and garments that protect handlers from exposure to pesticides. These include coveralls, eye protection, gloves, boots, respirators, aprons and hats.
phosphoroussearch for term
A nonmetallic element that occurs widely especially as phosphate fertilizers.
photic zonesearch for term
The layer of a body of water penetrated by sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis.
photolysissearch for term
Breaking down in sunlight. Synonyms: photodegradation
phytotoxicsearch for term
Poisonous to plants.
pioneeringsearch for term
To open or prepare for others to follow. The first instance of a plant species.
planktonsearch for term
The floating organisms occurring in a body of water, primarily made of microscopic algae and protozoa.
pneumataphoressearch for term
A submerged or exposed root often functioning as a respiratory organ in swamp or marsh plants (Example: a cypress knee).
potable watersearch for term
Water which is fit for consumption for humans and other animals. Drinking water.
ppbsearch for term
Parts per billion.
precipitationsearch for term
Falling out of solution and sinking to the bottom.
prescribed firesearch for term
Fire applied in a knowledgeable manner to vegetative fuels on a specific land area under selected weather conditions to accomplish predetermined, well-defined management objectives.
propagulesearch for term
Vegetative or sexual structures with the ability to create new plants; examples include turions, tubers, bulblets, fragments, winter buds and seeds.
r
rechargesearch for term
Replenishment of the aquifer by groundwater.
registration numbersearch for term
Numbers assigned to a pesticide product to identify that the product has been approved by the U.S. EPA.
restricted-use pesticidesearch for term
Highly hazardous pesticides that can only be possessed or used by applicators who are certified and licensed.
rhizoidssearch for term
A rootlike structure.
rinsatesearch for term
A dilute mixture of a pesticide or pesticides with water, solvents, oils, commercial rinsing agents, or other substances, that is produced by or results from the cleaning of pesticide application equipment or peticide containers.
s
saturatesearch for term
To cause (a substance) to unite with the greatest possible amount of another substance, through solution, chemical combination, or the like.
Secchi depthsearch for term
The depth at which a Secchi disk dropped into the water disappears from sight. A measurement of water clarity.
Secchi disksearch for term
A black and white disk attached to a rope which is used to measure water clarity. The depth at which it disappears from view when dropped into the water is the Secchi depth.
Secchi transparencysearch for term
A small black and white disk called a Secchi disk is dropped into the water, and where it disappears from view is called the Secchi transparency or the Secchi disk depth.
selectivitysearch for term
Ability of a herbicide to kill certain types of plants without causing significant injury to others.
senescesearch for term
To reach later maturity, to grow old.
signal wordsearch for term
One of three words (Danger, Warning, Caution) found on pesticide labels to indicate the relative hazard of the chemical.
standing cropsearch for term
amount of existing plant material present
statement of practical treatmentsearch for term
A section of the pesticide label that provides information on treating people who have been exposed to the pesticide. This includes emergency first aid information.
submersedsearch for term
Plants growing with their root, stems, and leaves completely under the surface of the water.
substratesearch for term
An underlying layer, the base over which an organism lives or which it moves.
surficial aquiferssearch for term
Shallow beds of shells and sand that lie less than 100 feet underground, separated from the Floridian aquifer by a confining bed of soil. Groundwater continuously moves along the hydraulic gradient from areas of recharge to areas of discharge.
systemic herbicidesearch for term
A herbicide that is absorbed into the plant through the leaves, stems or roots and translocated throughout the plant to kill it from the inside. Slower acting than contact herbicides.
t
tanninsearch for term
A dissolved substance from organic matter that imparts a red or brown stain to the water.
temperature inversionsearch for term
An increase of temperature with height through a layer of air.
thermal stratificationsearch for term
The horizontal layering of differing densities produced in a lake by temperature changes at different depths.
thermoclinesearch for term
Transition zone in a thermally stratified body of water between upper surface water (epilimnion) and deeper water (hypolimnion). Lack of water circulation causes temporary stratification, with the thermocline existing in the middle layer of water.
toxicitysearch for term
The degree or extent that a chemical or substance is poisonous.
transformationsearch for term
The environmental processes that cause a herbicide to no longer be toxic to plants, including adsorption (binding to the soil).
translocatesearch for term
The conduction of a soluble material (as metabolic products) from one part of a plant to another.
transpirationsearch for term
The passage of water through a plant from the roots through the vascular system to the atmosphere.
triploid grass carpsearch for term
Carp having three sets of chromosomes (triploid) instead of the normal two sets of chromosomes (diploid), making them sterile.
troglobitessearch for term
True cave-dwelling organisms that cannot survive on the surface. These organisms rely on consistent water temperature and quality for survival. Many of these in Florida are arthropods and are threatened or of special concern.
trophic statesearch for term
Also known as trophic status. The degree of nutrient enrichment of the water.
tuberssearch for term
The short, thickened fleshy food-storing portion of an underground stem with many surface buds, generally shaped like a rounded protuberance.
turbidsearch for term
Murky due to suspended sediment or other particles in the water (stirred up). Synonyms: turbidity
turionsearch for term
A compacted vegetative bud produced along the stem that can overwinter and form a new plant.
tussockssearch for term
Floating rafts of herbaceous vegetation.
v
vascular plantssearch for term
Plants that have tissue systems responsible for carrying or circulating fluids, such as sap and/or water throughout the body of a plant.
viscositysearch for term
Resistance to flow in a fluid or semifluid.
w
warningsearch for term
The signal word used on labels of pesticides considered to be moderately toxic or hazardous.
water claritysearch for term
The degree to which water is free from particles and easily seen through; the clearness or transparency of water.
water columnsearch for term
A conceptual column of water from lake surface to bottom sediments.
water transparencysearch for term
The amount of light penetrating into the water column.
water-tablesearch for term
The upper limit of the portion of the ground wholly saturated with water.
watershedsearch for term
The area that drains into a river or a lake (separated by a dividing ridge such as a mountain range).