Non-Native to Florida
Download a page (PDF 177 KB) from Identification and Biology of Nonnative Plants in Florida’s Natural Areas – Second Edition, by K.A. Langeland, H.M. Cherry, et al. University of Florida-IFAS Pub SP 257. 2008.
For control information, see Integrated Management of Nonnative Plants in Natural Areas of Florida (SP 242) by K. A. Langeland, J. A. Ferrell, B. Sellers, G. E. MacDonald, and R. K. Stocker
See Table 1 in Florida's Established Arthropod Weed Biological Control Agents and Their Targets (2013) for a list of arthropod biological control agents that occur on this species.
This species is listed on the FL DACS Florida Noxious Weed List – Rule 5B-57.007, making it “. . . unlawful to introduce, multiply, possess, move, or release . . . except under permit issued by the department . . . .” See 5B-57.004 for more information. It is also on the FL DACS Prohibited Aquatic Plant List – 5B-64.011. According to Florida Statute 369.25, “No person shall import, transport, cultivate, collect, sell, or possess any noxious aquatic plant listed on the prohibited aquatic plant list established by the department without a permit issued by the department.” See 5B-64.011 for more information. This species is also on the Federal Noxious Weed List – (7 CFR 360). No person may move a Federal noxious weed into or through the United States, or interstate, without a federal permit. See 7 CFR 360 for more information.
Date of introduction to Florida: 1906 (ornamental, agriculture)
(from Strangers in Paradise, Impact and Management of Nonindigenous Species in Florida, Chapter 2: Florida’s Invasion by Nonindigenous Plants: History, Screening, and Regulation, by D.R. Gordon and K.P. Thomas, pp. 21-37. Island Press, Washington, DC, 1997.)
Melaleuca trees, (Melaleuca quinquenervia), also known as punk trees or paperbark tea trees, are native to Australia. In that country, melaleuca is well-known, planted in parks, valued by beekeepers, attractive to birds and bats. In fact, because of development, melaleuca trees in some parts of Australia are the subject of conservation efforts. In other places, there are dense forests of melaleuca, just as there were when Europeans first arrived there.
In Florida, however, melaleuca is a pest, especially in the Everglades and surrounding areas, where the trees grow into immense forests, virtually eliminating all other vegetation. Melaleuca grows in terrestrial as well as in completely aquatic situations. The Everglades, the mostly treeless "river of grass", in some places has become the "river of trees", a completely alien habitat to the plants and animals that have evolved to live in the glades. During the 50 years since its introduction into the state, melaleuca has taken over hundreds of thousands of acres of Everglades, threatening the very existence of this internationally known eco-treasure.
Melaleuca produces huge quantities of seeds, which become small trees, which grow into almost impenetrable monocultures. Researchers are attempting to find ways to control melaleuca: herbicides are proving to be somewhat effective, but purposely-set management fires (and lightning-started fires) apparently actually help spread the seeds and trees. Recently, biological control insects have been released against melaleuca, but it will be some time before biocontrol results will be known.
Melaleuca is a tree, to about 80 feet tall. Its bark is whitish, spongy, peeling, and in many layers. Its leaves are to 5 inches long, alternate, evergreen, simple, short-stalked, narrowly elliptic. Leaf veins are more or less parallel. Melaleuca's white flowers are small and crowded in bottlebrush-like spikes at branch tips. The fruit are short, cylindric or squarish, woody capsules with many tiny seeds.
View more information and pictures about melaleuca tree, as contained in the Langeland/Burks book, Identification & Biology of Non-Native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas.
For ecology information about melaleuca in Florida, download this UF/IFAS-EDIS publication, Ecological Consequences of Invasion by Melaleuca quinquenervia in South Florida Wetlands: Paradise Damaged, Not Lost, by F.J. Mazzotti, T.D. Center, F.A. Dray and D.D. Thayer.
See various UF/IFAS-EDIS publications about biological controls of melalueca.
Here is a link to TAME Melaleuca.
Read the Melaleuca Management Plan: Ten Years of Successful Melaleuca Management in Florida 1988-98 by the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council.
See the UF/IFAS Assessment, which lists plants according to their invasive status in Florida.
Benefit-Cost Analysis of Melaleuca Management in South Florida by Katherine Carter-Finn, Alan W. Hodges, Donna J. Lee, and Michael T. Olexa. FE 673 (2009)