Solanum diphyllum

Two-leaf nightshade

Nonnative to FloridaFISC Category 2 Invasive

Species Overview

Native to: Central America

In the 1960s, two-leaf nightshade was grown in Florida as an ornamental shrub for its tiny white-purple flowers and bright orange fruits. It has escaped cultivation in the subtropics and tropics, including Florida, Texas, Java, and the West Indies. Species within Solanaceae often have toxicity issues as they generally contain glycosides. The effects of glycosides on the human body are mostly dose-related and can include anorexia, nausea, and vomiting. Use caution when handling this plant. The fruits should not be eaten.

Species Characteristics

Family: Solanaceae

Habit: upright shrub, up to 2m tall. Branches smooth, dark maroon brown turning white with age.

Leaves: paired, larger major leaf widest at the center, 4.7-6.8 cm long and 2.2 cm wide, minor leaf up 1.5 cm long and 1.4 cm wide.

Flowers: in upper leaf axils, white turning whitish-lavender, 1 cm wide.

Fruit: globose berry, to 1.2 cm in diameter, yellow to orange and fleshy when ripe.

Seeds: small, kidney-shaped.

Distribution in Florida: Central and South


It is a "bird-dispersed" volunteer occurring in urban and conservation areas and on disturbed land. It is seen in hardwood hammocks, maritime hammocks and rockland hammocks, pine flatlands, floodplain forests, and swampy areas. Research indicates that 75%–85% of the seeds will germinate, and the seed can stay alive even when buried an inch in the soil for up to two years.

Control Methods

Preventive Measures

Do not plant. Remove and securely discard fruits before they ripen.


Replace in landscape with native plants. Hand pull small plants.


None known.


Foliar: 0.15–0.25% Milestone, 1% Garlon 4, 3% glyphosate product. Consult your local UF IFAS Extension for further assistance with management recommendations. Additional information can be found in the EDIS Publication Integrated Management of Non-Native Plants in Natural Areas of Florida.

Learn more about this species

UF IFAS Assessment of Non-Native Plants in Florida’s Natural Areas

Distribution, Identification, and Management of Two-leaf Nightshade

Atlas of Florida Plants


USDA Plant Database

View records and images from University of Florida Herbarium